(s)ker-3


(s)ker-3
    (s)ker-3
    English meaning: to turn, bend
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “drehen, biegen”
    Note: (see also 1. (s)ker- “ shrivel, shrink due to excess dryness, wrinkle up “ and 2. (s)ker- ‘spring”)
    Material: A. Av. skarǝna- “ round “, skürayat̃ -raϑa- EN., actually “the den chariot kreisen läßt”; Alb. perhaps kërrús, kurrús “beuge, bend”; Gk. κυρτός “crooked” (old u- coloring, compare Russ. kortočki, as well as Church Slavic sъ-krъčiti “pull together” etc.); κορωνός “ writhed, crooked, humped “; κορώνη “allerlei Gekrũmmtes, Gebogenes etc.” (Lat. Lw. corōna), perhaps as *korō[u̯]-no-s zur u-basis *(s)kereu-; Lat. curvus “crooked, writhed, crooked, humped, arched” (forms -u̯o-); cortīna “round vessel, Kessel; the Dreifuß Apollos with dem Kessel darauf; Himmelswölbung”; from a participle *kr̥-to- “ twiddled, twisted, rotated, revved, revolved “ derived; M.Ir. cor, acc. pl. curu “Kreise”, Welsh cor-wynt, Bret. cor-uent “turbo”; Russ. kórtočki pl. f. “hockende, kauernde position “, Clr. kortáty śa ‘sich durchhelfen, rackern” (if “* crook oneself “? compare Gk. κυρτός). α) guttural extensions: ker-k-, besides kir-k- (from redupl. *ki-kro-) and (s)krek-: Doubtful O.Ind. kŕ̥küṭa- n. “Halsgelenk”, kr̥ka- m. (uncovered) “larynx”; Gk. κίρκος m. “ring” (κιρκόω “feßle with a ring”), usually (seit Homer) κρίκος (in addition κιρσός, κρισσός, Dor. κριξός m. Poll. Hes. “Krampfader” as “vortretende Aderringe”); Lat. circus “Zirkellinie, circle in the Astronomie; esp. die (round) racecourse “, preposition circum “ringsumheretc”, circü (after suprü, extrü); the Umbr. Monatsname kurc̨lasiu as “circulüriō”?; (s)krek- in nd. schrēge, schräge, M.H.G. schræge “ slantwise “, M.L.G. M.H.G. schrage “kreuzweisestehende Holzfũße”; Clr. kórkuš m. “ nape “, korkoši pl. “Achseln”, Cz. krk “ neck “ etc. (compare above O.Ind. kr̥ka-); Church Slavic sъ-krъčiti “pull together”, Russ. kórču, -itь ds., “Gesichter cut, clip”, kórča, korč “cramp”, okorča “gebogener Teil of Schlittens”, Cz. dial. krkoška “knag am wood”, krkva “wrinkle, crease “ etc.; also wRuss. korch “fist” etc. from *kъrk-so-?; nasalized (s)krenk-: presumably Russ. krjákatь “eine andere Wendung nehmen”, krjač “Knebelholz”, krjáčitь “festbinden”; Church Slavic kručina (*krǫčina) “χολέρα, epilepsia”, Sloven. u-kroknem, -niti “ crook oneself “, u-kročiti ds., Cz. kručina “broom”, Pol. kręcz (*krǫčь) “Kopfdrehen, dizziness, giddiness; swindle; (old) Starrkrampf”; with -g-: (s)ker-g-. Nor. hork (O.Ice. *hǫrk f.) “Weidenband”, dial. also “runzeliges woman”, herkja “zusammenbinden”, hurkl “bumpiness, knag”, harkal “knorrig”; Russ. korgá “verkrũppelter tree”, koržá vyj “verschrumpft, verkũmmert, hard” (etc.); nasalized (s)kreng-: O.Ice. hrøkkva (hrǫkk) ‘sich kräuseln, crook, zusammenschrumpfen” (*hrenkwan), Kaus. hrøkkva ‘schlingen, kräuseln” (*krankwjan), Dan. rynke “ furrow “, O.Ice. hrukka, M.H.G. runke “wrinkle”; m. anlaut sk- O.Ice. skrukka “runzeliges woman”, Nor. skrukk “wrinkle”, Swe. skrynka “ furrow “, O.E. scrincan “ shrink up, verschrumpfen, verwelken”, M.L.G. schrinken “ shrink up “; Gael. sgreang “wrinkle” is perhaps O.E. Lw.; as “verquerte, kreuzweis gestellte Latten”: M.L.G. M.H.G. schrank(e) “Gitter, fence, Verschluß”, Ger. Schrank, Schranke, M.L.G. M.H.G. schrenken “verschränken, beschränken, hinder”; O.H.G. scranc “deceit”, screnchan “to collapse bringen”, O.E. screncan “ein leg stellen, cheat, deceive”; (s)kregh-, nasalized: (s)krengh-: Umbr. cringatro, krenkatrum, krikatru “cinctum”; urgem. *hrengaz in finn. rengas, O.Ice. hringr, O.E. O.S. O.H.G. hring “ring”, O.Ice. hringja ‘small round vessel” and ‘spange” = O.H.G. rinka, O.E. hringe ‘spange”, O.H.G. O.S. hringon “ringeln, einen circle build “; in addition probably as “Rundstab”, Goth. hrugga ‘staff”, O.E. hrung f. “Leitersprosse, Speiche”, Eng. rung “Leitersprosse”, M.L.G. M.H.G. runge “Wagenrunge”; O.C.S. krǫgъ “ circle “, Church Slavic kruglъ, okruglъ “ round “ etc.; β) Dental extension kert- “turn”, see above S. 584 f. γ) Labial extensions (s)kereb(h)-, (s)kremb- “turn” see under esp. Schlagwort. B. i-basis (s)krei-: Lat. scrinium “rollenförmige Kapsel, shrine” (*round container); Lith. skriejù (for *skrejù), skriẽti “in Kreise bewegen, in Bogen fly”, Ltv. skrìenu (skreju), skrìet “run, fly”, O.Lith. skrelis “Fittich”, O.C.S. krilo (*krī-dlo-) n. “Flũgel”; Lith. kreĩvas “winded, slant, skew”, E.Lith. kraĩvas ‘slant, skew”, apū-kraivis “ writhed, crooked, humped “, ablaut.krìvis ‘schief gewachsener Mensch”; O.Pruss. grēiwa-kaulin acc. “Rippe” (“krummer bone”; dissim. from krēiwa-kaulin), Russ. (etc.) kriv “crooked”, O.C.S. razkriviti “crook”; Ltv. krails “ bent, curved, writhed, crooked, humped “; Ltv. kreĩlis “Linkhand”, ḱeĩris (dissim. from *kreiris) ds., Lith. kairỹs ds. (dissim. from *krairỹs); O.C.S. krinica “vessel, crock, pitcher”, okrinъ “ paten “, Russ. kriníca “Kufe, stream, brook, wellspring”; α) With Dentalen: (s)krei-t-: Lat. crīsō, -üre “with den Schenkeln wackeln (beim Beischlaf; from the wife, woman)”, *creitsō or *crītsō; M.Ir. crith “Zittern, fever”, Welsh cryd “ cradle, fever”, with s-: ysgryd, Bret. skrija “vor fear tremble”; O.Ice. hrīð f. “ attack, storm; Zwischenzeit, period (of time) “, O.E. hrīÞ f. ‘storm”, O.H.G. (h)rīdōn “tremble”, ablaut. (h)rit(t)o “fever”, O.E. hrið “fever”, O.Ice. hreiðr n. “nest” (“*wickerwork”); from dem concept the bogenförmigen Bewegung is verständlich O.Ice. skrīða ‘sich langsam vorwärts bewegen, grovel, truckle, creep “ (from Wũrmern), O.E. scrīÞan, O.S. scrīthan and skrīdan, O.H.G. scrītan ‘schreiten”, O.H.G. scrit “ footstep “, O.Ice. skriðr “run, flow, Vorwärtsschreiten”, O.E. scriÞe, scride m. “run, flow”, skrid n. “ cart “; Ltv. kraitât “lurch”; Lith. skriečiù , skriẽsti “turn, in circle herumdrehen”, skrūtis “Radfelge”, O.Pruss. scritayle ds., Lith. apskritùs “ round “, skritulỹs “ circle, Kniescheibe”, Ltv. skritulis “wheel”, Lith. skritinỹs “ball, Globus”. (s)kreid-: Lith. skrindù, skrìsti “fly, kreisen”, skridine ́ti “kreisen (from birds)”, skrūdauti “in Kreise gehn”, skriedžiù , skriẽsti “fly”, skraidaũ, -ūti “hin and her in Bogen fly”, skraidùs “quick, fast”; Ltv. skraidelêt “umherlaufen”, skrìedinât “antreiben”. β) With Labialen: (s)kreip-: O.Ice. hreife m. “Handwurzel”, hreifa ‘swing”; Lith. kreipiù, kreipti “turn, wenden”, kraipaũ, -ūti, Iter. krypstù, krỹpti ‘sich drehen”; O.C.S. skrěnja “εὐτραπελία, scurrilitas” (*skroipni̯ü); Slav. *krě(p)sъ (*kroip-so-) in O.C.S. vъz-krěšǫ, -iti “auferstehen lassen (from den Toten)”, Church Slavic krěsъ m. “τροπή, temporum mutatio”, Serb. krȉjes “Johannisfeuer”; ablaut. O.C.S.vъs-krьsnǫti “auferstehen”. (s)kreib-: O.Ice. hrip n. “ wooden vessel”, M.Eng. rip “creel”, O.H.G. href “ pannier “(originally “Geflochtenes”); Ltv. kribas pl. “netting in sled “. s-extension (s)krei-s-, esp. from “vibrierender Bewegung, (oneself) shake”. M.Ir. cressaim ‘shake, swing, brandish” (*kristō); Goth. af-, us-hrisjan “ab-, ausschũtteln”, O.E. O.S. hrissan “to shake, tremble”; O.Ice. hrīs n. “ shrubbery, rod”, O.E. hrīs n. “twig, branch, rod”, O.H.G. hrīs “Reis, rod, deadwood, shrubbery, bush”; Nor. risla “bush, twig, branch, Wipfel eines Baumes; Ähre”, Swe. ressna “(Hopfen)ranke”, ressn “Docke gehechelten Flachses” etc.; Lat. crīnis “hair, esp. hair of the head “ (*crisnis, compare:) cris-ta “the comb am Kopfe the animal”, O.Ice. hrista ‘shake”, M.L.G. risten “flax, wattle, braid”; O.H.G. rīsta, Ger. Reiste “zusammengedrehter tussock, bundle generally “; with ĭ: nd. riste, risse ds., Dutch riste (and rijste) also “Traubenkamm, Rispe, row”; O.Pruss. craysi “Halm”, crays “hay”; here as p-derivative also: Lat. crispus “ frizzy, sich kräuselnd, vibrierend”, crispō, -üre “kräuseln, swing”, intr. “tremble”, Gaul. PN. Crixos, Welsh crych “ frizzy “, Bret. crech ds.; M.H.G. rispen “kräuseln”, rispeln ds., rispe “Gezweig, shrubbery “, O.H.G. hrispahi “virgultum”, Ger. Rispe “deadwood, Buschwerk, bundle, bũschliger Blũtenstand”, in the Weberei “eine gewisse Lage the Fäden”, Eng. dial. risp ‘stengel from Schlingflanzen, Ranken”. C. u-basis (s)kreu-: compare above S. 935 to Gk. κορωνός; O.Welsh crunn, M.Welsh crwnn, fem. cronn, O.Bret. cron “ round “, M.Ir. cruind “ round “, zur basic form *krundi, compare Gk. κοκρυν- δακοί κυλλοί; Sloven. krúliti “verstũmmeln, rings behacken”, Serb. krùljav “lame, crippled “, Pol. królić (for krulić) “ furrow “; compare also O.Ind. karū́ -kara- m. “whirl of Halses and Rũckgrates”; k-extension (s)kreu-k-: O.Ind. kruñcati (Dhütup.) “krũmmt sich”; Lat. crux “Marterholz” (originally “round picket, pole”); Ir. crūach f. “heap, barn, haystack, hill”, Gaul. *krouka “ acme, apex “, worfrom *krōkka, krūk(k)a ds. (v. Wartburg FEW. 2, 1367), Welsh crug m. “cippus, tumulus”, Corn. O.Bret. cruc “hill”, Bret. crug, O.Brit.-Lat. Penno-crucium PN.; O.Ice. hryggr “backbone, spine”, O.E. hrycg, O.S. hruggi, O.H.G. (h)rukki “back”; O.Ice. hrūga f. “heap”, hraukr “heap”, O.E. hrēac “Kornhaufe”, Dutch rook ds., changing through ablaut O.E. cornhrycce f. “Korndieme”, Eng. rick ds.; Lith.kriáuklė “Meerschnecke”, kriáuklas “Rippe”; Ltv. kruknêt “ writhed, crooked, humped sit”; A t-extension seems krū̆ t- “Körperwölbung” above S. 624.
    References: WP. II 568 ff., WH. I 220 f., 233 f., 279 f., 317 f., 293, 296 f., Trautmann 140 f., 267 f., Loth RC. 43, 416 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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